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1. Entities that continue or persist through time, such as objects, qualities, and functions. (Source: Arp, R., & Smith, B. (2008). Function, Role, and Disposition in Basic Formal Ontology, Retrieved from [1])
2. Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) 2.0 OWL file defines 'continuant' as 'an entity that persists, endures, or continues to exist through time while maintaining its identity.' ( BFO 2.0 OWL)
3. [DOLCE] Entities that are ‘in time’, they are ‘wholly’ present (all their proper parts are present) at any time of their existence. (Source: Masolo, C., Borgo, S., Gangemi, A., Guarino, N., & Oltramari, A. (2003). WonderWeb Deliverable D18, Retrieved from [2]).
4. [BFO2.0] An entity that continues or persists through time, including (1) independent objects, (2) qualities and dispositions, and (3) the spatial regions these entities occupy at any given time. Continuant and occurrent are the two highest categories (universals) in BFO. ([ Arp et al., 2015 ])


  • In BFO Continuants are contrasted with (and disjoint with) Occurrent.
  • 'Endurant' is the term used in DOLCE. ([ Masolo et al., 2003])
  • In applied ontology Continuant and Endurant are commonly taken as synonyms, also widely in philosophy, although a bit more attention may be paid there, cf. Hawley, 2015, near end of section 2.

Synonymous with Edu:Endurant